A natural disaster is an adverse environmental event that injures and damages areas and property throughout the world. They result from the natural processes of the earth. The recovery of the affected population depends upon its resilience, i.e., the ability to recover, strength, and sustainability of the infrastructure. Natural disasters can be geological, hydrological, metrological, wildfires, or space disasters. For instance, floods and tsunamis fall into the category of hydrological. Hurricanes and tornados fall into the category of geological, whereas volcanic eruptions and forest fires come under the category of wildfires.
Keeping in mind the inevitability of natural disasters, stopping them is next to impossible, but the extent of damage can be minimized with effective and durable preventive measures. Education tops the list when it comes to training people against natural disasters, especially an emergency management degree goes a long way in helping people in mitigating the losses. In general, many preventive measures are usually practiced at times of natural disasters. Such measures include;
- Prior warning system
- Tested and unfailing evacuation plan
- Advanced and efficient technological and meteorological equipment educating masses about natural disasters and their prevention
- Disaster supply kit
- Fit fire sprinklers
- Protect the environment
- Accessibility of fire extinguisher
- Recorded inventory of valuables to reimburse economic and property damage
- In case of forest fires keep fuel sources at a distance
Prior warning system
An effective warning system determines the extent of the damage caused by natural disasters. Effectiveness is negatively correlated to the damage caused. That means if masses are informed prior to the event, they can reach out to the safe places, thus reducing the number of causalities. For example, in countries like Japan and India, their strengthened warning system informs people beforehand. They set up refugee camps for masses and establish emergency communication options for people in need.
Advanced and efficient technological and meteorological equipment
Since its the modern era, technological advancement has helped many countries overcome the issues related to natural disasters. Efficient and advanced technology like a prior warning system helps in alarming and informing people. Educating them about the safe places and stations established by the government also helps the masses in using helpline numbers to reach out for help.
Other than that, it also provides the ease to move the people to safe places. This is so that they are away from the area under threat of a natural disaster, which results in fewer causalities. Moreover, metrological advancement, which includes Richter scale, modified Mercalli scale, fajita scale, is used to predict the amount and intensity of the earthquake tornados and hurricanes. They can be used to take preventive steps accordingly.
Tested and unfailing evacuation plan
It’s essential in times of disaster that people should be aware of where they have to go and how to reach there. Proper and thorough programs should be conducted to educate masses about the usage of an evacuation plan. It is the responsibility of authorities to enhance the successful conduct of evacuation ways and plans in times of chaos. In fighting forest fires, firefighters should also be trained and well-practiced in their areas to prevent their life from being at risk. Likewise, in hydrological disasters, divers should keep their oxygen tanks full and be trained to go deeper lengths. For example, last year, the Thailand Cave Rescue success was owed to the well-trained divers whose proper training contributed to making an almost impossible rescue possible.
Disaster supply kit
In case of delayed rescue or aid, people must have disaster supply kits in their homes. The kit must include the following items;
- Oxygen tanks and mask
- Food items
All these items can significantly contribute and help in providing basic aid. There are quite a few examples where conditions turned out for the worst, and people got stuck in extreme conditions. Items like sterile gauze pads healed severe injuries and bleedings in times of earthquake. A list of emergency phone numbers is another important thing that can help in reaching out to people and informing them about the hazardous conditions. Furthermore, an effective coping method named 3c method, which is short for the check, call, care is also used by survivors to determine the extent of damage and the amount of help needed there.
Fit fire sprinklers
Fire sprinklers are specifically used in forest fires and nuclear fires caused by earthquakes. They provide sufficient pressure and flow rate to mitigate the intensity of the fire. It’s an entire system of water pipes that are connected to the main source. Fire sprinklers are used widely. Over 96 percent of fires were controlled by fire sprinklers alone, which shows their effectiveness and usefulness. Some of the types that are commonly used all over the world are is a wet pipe. A wet pipe is used as a quick reaction to the fire and is mostly installed in the buildings because the pressure of the water is higher than in any other type.
Moreover, another type is the dry pipe. A dry pipe is used in low-temperature areas to avoid freezing of the pipe. This is done with the help of compressed air so that the water does not freeze and comes out of the pipe without any delay.
Accessibility of the fire extinguisher
The quick availability of the fire extinguisher helps respond to chaotic fires in crowded areas like schools, corporate buildings, and universities. Moreover, how to operate these fire extinguishers should also be taught to the people who work there in order to avoid mass causalities. The fires caused by earthquakes can also be dealt with a similar procedure, and causalities can be avoided at any level.
The economic damage caused by natural disasters to masses can be well compensated and reimbursed if there are a prior record and inventory of the valuables like property, cars, etc. Moreover, this helps the authorities to determine the extent of damage done and strengthen the preventive measures to avoid these types of disasters in the future.
In case of forest fires keep fuel sources away
It has mostly been observed that the fire situations go out of control due to the presence of the fire enhancers (fuel, gas), which poses a significant hurdle for the rescuers despite being equipped with well-updated equipment. So, the safe distancing of such enhancers is extremely crucial to avoid disasters going out of control. Moreover, it is also necessary to protect the lives of the people living in those areas and also the rescuers.
Protect the environment
Earthquake, forest fires, floods, drought tornados are directly or indirectly triggered by human intervention like deforestation, pollution, co2 discharge, etc. One of the preventive measures includes implantation of the trees that keeps flood and forest fires at bay. Other than that, plantation of mangrove trees also results in keeping tsunamis and floods away. Co2 discharge raises the environmental temperature, which directly melts the glaciers hence increasing the water level resulting in floods.
Educating masses about prevention
In order to avoid a large number of deaths, masses should be given education. It can be through different programs about preventive measures established by the government because the survivors must know how to use the procedures, thus serving the primary goal of these methods, which is to save people.
The Final Word
As mentioned above, it is next to impossible to stop the chances of a natural disaster, whether it is annual Californian and Australian bushfires or massive floodings in South Asia and Europe. The city of Venice has recently faced the harsh reality of climate change. In such circumstances, it becomes ever so important to educate our generations and prepare them to deal with the losses of natural disasters and calamities.